Sunday, February 18, 2018

Just in Case vs Just in Time Learning in K12

When I first starting working in training and organizational development, I was introduced to the term JIT. I quickly learned that JIT stood for just in-time learning; this style of learning was unfamiliar to me after attending traditional schools and colleges. It was the early 2000's and we had just adopted a Learning Management System (LMS) and had been given the
Young military member engaging in JIT Learning
task of developing a library of resources for lab staff and young military members and coupling that with authentic tasks in
OTJ or on-the-job learning. The results of these shifts were quite successful keeping lab employees and military students engaged, meeting required job competencies sooner and earning college credits towards graduate degrees. This military organization demonstrated the importance of a systems approach when incorporating JIT learning into its programs and not being stuck to a broken model of learning. It was a significant effort that required change management, leadership support and appropriate resources to be successful. 
Engaging learning through a weekly reality
iPod show to teach JIT skills to store associates.
Fast-forward to working in learning and development for a large global retailer with a very young employee base and having to help them learn about problem solving, resilience and basic time management. It struck me that the generation graduating college, being hired at our company, were typically victims of just in case classrooms. The company spent millions of dollars every year trying to help its young associates build what we now call "future-ready" skills and mindsets using blended learning and small five minute or less videos coupled with classroom training. In Reinventing Training for the Global Information Age, Wind and Reibstein (2000) lash out at the traditional educational model and simultaneously propose a new model for education. “Knowledge is the new source of competitive advantage. Companies (and schools) need radically new knowledge to succeed in an environment in which whole industries are created and destroyed or unalterably transformed by relentless technology, competitive shifts and changing demographics.”

Although this quote is almost twenty years old, many 
K12 school systems still focus on students memorizing facts and low-level content instead of helping students get good at learning content and mastering concepts as a means to solving problems and answering challenging questions. Some may argue that policy or lack of resources don't allow for these necessary shifts in a scalable way. Yet several models have emerged over the last twenty years such as Big Picture Learning Schools, High Tech High and some traditional district  schools across the country that have shifted some or most of the learning to just in-time style learning.   

So the questions remains, how might make school feel more just in time vs just in case so that students are ready for the careers of the future

Dintersmith and Wagner (2015) offer these core pedagogical approaches and principles that align with the just in time style of learning:
  1. attack meaningful, engaging challenges
  2. have open access to resources
  3. struggle, often for days, and learn how to recover from failure
  4. form their own points of view
  5. engage in frequent debate
  6. learn to ask good questions
  7. collaborate 
  8. display accomplishments publicly
  9. work hard because they are intrinsically motivated
While it may seem daunting to take on all nine of the suggested approaches that Dintersmith and Wagner pose, having a bias for action and starting to design the school of the future (at all levels from policy down to classrooms) needs to happen now. 


Wednesday, February 7, 2018

Self-Concept Critical to Student Success

Students who are successful after high-school exhibit confidence, a strong sense of character, independence and the ability to demonstrate 21st century workplace readiness skills. Having a strong self-concept has been shown to be crucial to future success, particularly for traditionally marginalized youth (Marsh, Byrne and Verschueren, 2011). Although many youth have had to overcome incredible obstacles and setbacks even to reach the point of applying to college, they may need even greater determination to stay in school and finish their studies. 


Learning to code and program a robot
at the Carnegie Science Center
FabLab where HFA Students attend
weekly classes as part of the
Network Campus Program.
High schools should feel compelled to support students in gaining strong self-concept, learning independent thinking skills and knowing how to ask for support. Equally important, is showing all students how they can become part of a system in the face of school pressures traditional students may not face such as: racial, cultural and/or gender biases. Self-concept is frequently positively correlated with academic performance, but it appears to be a consequence rather than a cause  of high achievement (Baumeister et al., 2003). This suggests that increasing students’ academic skills is a more effective means to boost their self-concept than vice versa. Cokley (2000) found that the best predictor of academic self-concept for students attending traditionally white colleges was GPA, whereas the best indicator of academic self-concept for students attending historically black institutions was quality of student-faculty interactions. While having a positive self-concept is important for all students, it becomes even more important for those with non-traditional experiences because of the added complexity of navigating in a system that was not designed for them. What might we do in high schools to prepare students with the skills to navigate these systems and build their self-concept?

Some thoughts:

  1. Help students find their strengths and passions. As students transition from middle to high school, their self-concept should gradually grow if schools are providing an equitable, safe and engaging environment. Schools should design projects and activities for independent thinking and more opportunities to participate in activities in which students feel competent. However, none of this type of learning will take place if students don't build relationships with teachers that are based on trust and understanding. Furthermore, students who identify, learn to leverage and build their strengths are more likely to remain in school and progress into managerial roles in their career (Perrone, Sedlacek and Alexander, 2001). High schools can build mentoring programs, advisory classes and integrate activities for students to uncover their strengths as part of career and college readiness programming and offer internships for students to explore careers and strengths.
  2. Leadership through voice and choice Helping students grow into leaders and not followers, participants and not spectators and young adults that transcend doubts from within are critical to student success. Some ideas include monthly student recognition programming and on-the-spot recognition such as Holy Family Academy's Academy Award program. With the Academy Award program, any faculty or staff member can recognize a student at any time as competently demonstrating one of the HFA Mindsets (Problem Solver, Servant Leader, Entrepreneur and Resilient Learner). Additionally, advisory programming and personal learning plans support students by incorporating their strengths, voice and choice and opportunities for growth and help them plan to overcome challenges they might be experiencing academically, with attendance or behavior. Additional ideas incude peer mentoring programs, adopting a restorative practice approach to mediation and after-school support programs to boost self-concept. Last, encourage students to explore and embrace their racial or gender identity. Cultivating a positive self-image, exclusively around race, gender and ethnicity should make a lasting difference in student performance and confidence.
  3. Define success beyond the usual measures  Like many Big Picture Learning affiliated schools, our school, Holy Family Academy measures student success beyond test scores, grades and other traditional indicators. Success is viewed in terms of whether a student has shown persistence in academics, internships, relationship building, civic involvement and positive self-concept. Support systems, advisors and personalized learning approaches have been proven to boost self-concept and character traits necessary to be truly college or career ready (Washor et al., 2008). Allowing students to proceed at their own pace, such as taking college classes in high school or working an extended internship requires more planning but the benefits are worth it. School staff members can help parents and peers be more effective “supporters” by providing suggestions and opportunities for appropriate positive reinforcement, and they can help students learn to be more aware of the support they receive (Harter, 1999). Alternative assessments such as ePortfolios, capstone projects, student-led exhibitions of learning provide another means for studnets to build self-confidence and demonstrate mastery of core academic content as well as 21st century skills. 
Schools can deliberately help to enhance each student's identity and feelings of self-worth when they strategically design programming to help students find their strengths, honor their cultural and ethnic norms, build positive identities, become leaders and measure themselves beyond the traditional high-stakes tests. A strong self-concept opens doors and encourages students to take risks, express their creativity and invest in the work they produce at school while preparing them for post-secondary pathways.

Sunday, January 28, 2018

School Model Infographics - Do you have one?

How do you explain a project-based, personalized, equity-focused, internship enriched and funded, deeper learning, design thinking, technology rich, advisory and soft-skill focused high school? 

That explanation is a mouthful and not practical at all... but we often find the need to go into this level of detail because our high school model is so different than the norm. Add to this our pathways program where all students, at the end of the tenth grade, "declare" a career cluster area and post-secondary pathway and our Network Campus Program - it can get confusing to new families and outsiders. To aid in clearing up some of the confusion and helping new families, faculty and students on-board to our model, we have designed a new infographic. 



Does your school have a similar infographic and if not, why not? The design of this infographic went through 4 iterations that included feedback from students, faculty and the general public (through twitter) to refine and re-design. We intend to use this graphic on admissions materials, banners, with our new student and new hire orientation presentations as well as with people that come visit us. We have had close to 40 tours this school-year, so far. I joke that giving tours needs to be on my job description. 

What school infographic models can you share? What do you think is still missing from this one? 

Sunday, January 21, 2018

Reframing The Fear of Educational Innovation

I have been at several workshops in the last few weeks with educators and administrators and the biggest theme that keeps emerging (around why more schools aren't disrupting the status quo) is the fear of change or failure. 

I believe all educators are also designers - and that we need to design for courage while having a bias for action. 

Albert Bandura used the process of guided mastery to help people gain courage and overcome mental roadblocks. Breaking down the big steps needed to design and execute changes in education systems becomes manageable when we break them down into smaller pieces. Sometimes we just need to start. The failure to get started or stop when things "fall off the rails" stalls innovation in education. If we think about educational change and innovation as a series of small steps it helps administrators and teachers overcome the fear of failure that blocks their momentum to start. Small successes with pilot programs, "school within a school" models and other efforts at innovation help schools go onto the next level of the necessary education change most schools/districts currently face. 

If we accept making mistake as part of learning, the fear of failure will not hold us back and help us continue to do the work in the face of setbacks. If you hold a position of power within a school/district, role model risk taking and give teachers permission to fail from time to time. Acknowledge mistakes and move on. When teachers lose confidence in their creativity, the impact can be profound within a school system - leading to fixed mindsets and fear. Sir Ken Robinson says that in most schools "mistakes are the worst thing you can make." The goal of schools should be to fulfill the promise of helping students (and educators) find their strengths, passions and enable them to make their way in the world. 

Most schools remain stuck in place with the status quo while the most innovative are sprinting forward. It takes creative confidence (Kelley and Kelley, 2013) to leave the land of certain outcomes and the comfort of what we know to try a new approach or share a wild sounding idea. Once insecurity takes hold, efforts at changing schools stop and fizzle out. What matters most is our belief in our capacity to create positive change and the courage to take action. Often efforts to improve school systems move into planning but end before action - or start too soon. Using a framework like design thinking, where we are called to build empathy for others, fail fast and be resilient, can support change efforts. To embrace experimentation, don't get stuck in the planning stage; innovation is all about quickly turning ideas into action. 

Ideas to "Get Going"
Adapted from Kelley and Kelley, Creative Confidence, 2013. 


  • Get help: form a think tank made up of diverse stakeholders from both inside and outside of your school, hire the right consultant: organizational psychologist, designer, or business advisor. 
  • Create peer pressure: gather your team frequently, give teacher leaders release time or run an innovation fellows program (similar to a program I have run in past schools with success) or find a mentor. Get other schools/districts onboard.
  • Gather an audience: finding attentive listeners that can be your parents, other innovators at meetups or offer workshops at your school using the edcamp model.
  • Do a bad job: this gets back to the fear of change... while it might be hard, suspend judgement of how well you are doing. Just get something out there. 
  • Lower the stakes: If the problem you are working on feels so important that everything hinges on it, make it less important. Use design methods like Difficulty Impact Matrix, "What's on Your Radar," or creative matrix (LUMA Institute System of Innovating for People) to figure out what makes sense. 


These small changes to combat fear of change and failure can create infectious action. It might start in a few classrooms, lead to a building and eventually a larger school system but embracing an innovation mindset helps fuel innovation. So, embrace the fear and don't sit back and let circumstances determine the fate of a future generation of students. It's our duty as educators to reframe fear into educational innovation. 


Replace "corporate" for school and this model works.



Sunday, January 14, 2018

Personalizing Learning in Math

If we want to ensure all students are ready for the STEM careers of the future, we need to ensure they are mastering the math competencies required for these roles. I am not the first educational leader to suggest that we need to re-think how we teach math but we have actually shifted our math classrooms to a different type of approach that uses blended and personalized learning. A lot of our model has been based on the work of Jo Boaler, a Professor at Stanford University, that has urged educators to re-think math classrooms for many years. Boaler says: "In some countries, people believe that learning is a long and slow process that happens over time, in all subjects. Here in the U.S., and some other countries, people are quick to believe that if a math problem is hard to solve, then you are not “a math person.” It is difficult to know where this started, but I would say it is linked to the teaching of mathematics. That tends to be all about right or wrong answers and speed." Boaler continues that to have a math mindset students need to have a growth mindset vs a fixed mindset. With a growth mindset, people really believe they can do anything and they can learn anything. And people with a fixed mindset really think their intelligence is fixed — so they can change things only a little bit. Creating the conditions that cultivate a growth mindset is an every teacher and all school activity, not just something that happens in the math classroom. 

Students getting some direct instruction in
one of HFA's three blended math pods.
As a 9-12 school that represents students from 15 school districts, students join our community with varied math backgrounds. In general, most of our students are below the expected grade level in math (yet close or ahead with ELA). 

As a progressive school we knew that teaching math in the standard way would not be our approach. To address the varied math backgrounds and align with our teaching and learning values along with a students' personalized career and post-secondary interests, we primarily decided to leverage the lab-rotation model of blended learning in our math classrooms. 

HFA students all take a math benchmark assessment three times a year through the software provided by our learning partner Imagine Math (formerly Think Through Math). From there they get a personalized pathway (determined through the software's machine learning algorithms) and from teacher input. Students then rotate in math blocks through three pods based on their individual needs. In essence, every student in our school has a personalized learning plan for math and proceeds at the speed appropriate for them. For example, we have a student who has tested out of the highest level of math standards who is in the 9th grade and is already taking college math classes through our local Community College and on the other side, some 10th grade students still trying to master pre-algebra standards. How would a one-size-fits all approach to math help either of these students?

The Three Pods:
1. The first math pod is the Imagine Math pod, students are working to master math standards and concepts at their own pace. They do get individual goals and class goals for mastering these standards. 
Students working at their own pace in the Imagine Math Pod.
2. Teachers use the data and analytics from the Imagine Math pod to pull-out and personalize direct instruction to a group of students and offer more support on a major math standard like slope or congruence, etc. This happens on a weekly basis. Some direct instruction is done through peer-to-peer learning as well. After all, research shows at least 90% mastery of a concept has been demonstrated when a student can teach another. 
3. The project and problem based pod: in this math pod, engineering and science teachers infuse STEM though creative and real-world application. As Boaler has said: "While math is a subject that allows for precise thinking, but when that precise thinking is combined with creativity, flexibility, and multiplicity of ideas, the mathematics comes alive for people."

In addition to these three pods, it's important to talk about staffing and layout of this type of classroom. When we first started, we had on average, 40 students in the room at once with three full-time math teachers. This proved to be quite noisy so we switched locations in our third year to a room that could be made smaller and closed in the center with an accordion door when needed. We now have two full-time math teachers and three others who rotate in from our science and engineering teaching teams (so the math teachers work with every student in the school and get about 10-12 hours of planning a week). This staffing model has been helpful so that math and science units can be more aligned and our focus on maker/STEAM learning can be intentional. In addition to staffing in creative ways, furniture and space makes a difference. In our flex math rooms, students have rolling chairs which can form rows when needed, large smart boards on wheels and grouping tables. The flexibility of the room compliments the flexibility of our blended model. 

So Does it Work?
While we are still evaluating this approach, we have been able to see a few key indicators of success:
1. Nobody should FAIL math at HFA as long as they put in effort and build their growth mindset, even the learners "most behind" are getting strong scores when they put in effort.
2. Personalized learning isn't just about technology; it's about teacher collaboration and creativity as well as building trusting relationships with students; our math teachers are also advisors at the school and teach a section of our leadership seminar class. 
3. Selecting the right software is important; we piloted three or four before selecting Imagine Math. We love that Imagine Math has a real-life teacher available until the evening to support our students just through one-click and embeds gaming and videos. 
4. Peer-to-peer learning is powerful and valuable and it's another way for teachers to assess mastery of math standards. If you can teach a peer who is behind, you know the standard.
5. The students with the lowest benchmark scores were able to "make-up" multiple grade level standards in less than one school year.
6. The highest assessed benchmark students are able to "comp-out" of HFA math and move into college-level math quicker, when they are ready for it vs having to wait.
7. The problem and project based pod allows all students to become creative and engaged in real-life learning and introduces science concepts to truly make our STEM program integrated. 

What Is Next?
Kudos to our lead math teacher, Mrs. Sanders
who has been a pioneer with this form of rethinking math! 
Now that we have been using and tweaking this model for three years, we will begin to track growth on our CWRA+ assessments and ACT Aspire as well as ACT scores. 

  • We would love to do a formal research study and are discussing this possibility. 
  • We may begin to teach higher-level math classes on campus (vs dual enrollment) as more students are ready for Calculus, etc. 
  • We will continue to align math senior year with our students' post-secondary plans and incorporate financial literacy as a graduation requirement. 
  • We do plan to add another staff member dedicated to the math team and still incorporate our science team into the problem/project pod. 

For more inspiration check out this video:





Sunday, January 7, 2018

Pathways to the Future

"If you believe only one pathway exists to achieve your goal, then all there is to evaluate your progress with is how much faster or slower you hit each milestone compared to the norm." Todd Rose (2016) suggests that we consequently bestow tremendous meaning on the pace of personal growth, learning and developing. Using this concept, it would mean that students who complete something quicker are "better." The assumption that faster means better was developed by Edward Thorndike who believed that the pace at which students learn material was correlated with academic and professional success. A proponent for standardizing classes, Thorndike also supported schools developing tests based on how long it took the average student to complete a task and to rank students accordingly. This theory of assessment is profoundly inequitable and simply favors the students who happen to be fast while penalizing students who are just as smart yet learn at a slower pace or have other barriers currently limiting their ability to focus on academics. 

In a world that is no longer focused on preparing the majority of students to work as factory workers, the end of "average" approaches to education should end. As Rose suggests, "we should evaluate students based on the quality of their outcomes, not the quickness of their pace." This assumption is not based on new research - over thirty years ago Bloom's work showed that when students are allowed to participate in flexible classrooms the vast majority of students perform better. Bloom's work suggests there is no such thing as a "fast" or "slow" learner yet most schools still use this variable to measure student achievement. By resisting shifts towards personalized learning schools are failing to nurture the potential and talent of all its students. 

All Holy Family Academy students select a post-secondary pathway and career cluster they want to pursue at the end of the 10th grade. These pathways have multiple entry and exist points as students select and create customized experiences in junior and seniors years all while at the pace that makes sense for them. 

At a school like ours (designed to end average approaches to completing high school) we focus on personalized learning, multiple post-secondary pathway exploration and project based learning. Coupled with advisory and family support, we believe this model to address the current inequities in school design. 

Summarized HFA was designed with these 5 R's in mind:

1. Real life learning through project based learning, partnerships and internships 
2. Rigorous learning experiences that are personally paced 
3. Relevant learning with focus on being culturally relevant and sustaining 
4. Relationships - the backbone of our school family that is guided through faith, built through family partnerships and advisory supported by well-trained and caring adults

So, how might we help our students pursue multiple pathways to success rather than follow the average pathway? What does your school do to support this type of experience? What might the barriers be and how do we overcome them? 

Dusting this thing off...

Writing is a truly reflective process and in the midst of busy schedules and priority pulls, I have  lost my way with writing on this blog. I've decided that Sunday before family dinner is the best time to write a weekly post. What do you want to learn about? Discuss? I hope this blog can be a catalyst for topics around Deeper Learning Equity and school design. 

Some of the topics on my mind that I plan to blog about are:
1. Our new virtual reality project that was just funded by The Heinz Endowments and will explore immersive storytelling with our partner Social VR.
2. The power of "leaving to learn" in schools - particularly internships.
3. Pre-Apprentice programs and competency based assessment.
4. Student-led exhibitions and other alternative forms of assessment.
5. Mastery based learning. 
6. Equity; all about it in schools. 
7. Partnerships between industry, higher-education and schools to create learning ecosystems.
8. Girls in STEM - my focus will never go away with this topic. 


Designing together with folks interested in the intersection of
equity, remaking learning and innovation.